The U.S. Army formed many pioneer infantry regiments during World War I. Soldiers like Arthur Chaney were trained in engineering and infantry tactics. These troops generally worked under the direction of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to build roads, bridges and camps along the Allied front line. Mechanics, carpenters, farriers and masons used their special skills as members of pioneer infantry regiments. This was the type of non-combat work performed by most African American men in the American Expeditionary Forces.